The first newspaper Nicholas – 150 years

The first newspaper of Nikolaev – 150 years
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Stories known examples where even very young people created so many masterpieces that another five lives and do not do. And not far to seek: Shevchenko in the 26 years published “Kobzar” Lermontov for his 27 years of life, wrote many beautiful poems, Kotlyarevskiy at a young age has created a “Aeneid.”

also has what to be proud. Pavlovsky was not yet 28 when he began to publish the first newspaper in Nikolaev, “Nicholas Bulletin”. Its first issue was published January 5, 1865
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Yegor Pavlovsky lived a short but brilliant life. He was born in Odessa April 7, 1837 His father was the town doctor, and his mother – daughter of the famous preacher. Yegor childhood like in a hurry to live, create, show independence. 13-year-old’s parents sent him to study in St. Petersburg. In 1857 he graduated from the Marine Corps, received the rank of lieutenant. On the corvette “Lynx” Pavlovsky sailed around Europe. Soon after he arrived in Nikolaev. Then I decided to stay, despite the many flattering offers from St. Petersburg.

Here Pavlovsky some time served as assistant chief of the Hydrographic Service. They were executed publication “Pilot books of the Black Sea” and “Sea of ​​Azov Pilot books.” He was also indifferent to literary pursuits. He became a member of “Maritime Collection” under his name and began to leave the publication. At the same time, he sought authorization to print in Nikolaev city newspaper.
Soon Pawlowski founded on personal funds the city’s first newspaper “Nicholas Bulletin”. To do this, he rented a fleet of staff printing plant, for which he has pledged to publish in the newspaper the orders of the chief commander. But this “load” coincided with his aspirations – because at first the material was not much.

In addition to information from the everyday life of the city, the newspaper put historical materials, talked about the needs and requirements of the region. On its pages to publish information on the development of literacy schools, on the situation in the schools, on the development of the port of Nikolaev, on the need for the railway. Pavlovsky said that “… with the opening of the port and the development of commerce holiday Nikolaev will play an important role in the life of the whole region, is now finding a sure and convenient marketing their works.”
He was sure that the city adjacent to the fertile and densely populated area even more firmly attached to the port would be, why Nikolaev benefit. Without taking on the role of fortuneteller, Pavlovsky still expressed confidence and hope to see in the near future, all that is lacking in Nikolaev, but the city deserves. This confidence is based on the success of online education, trade expansion: land and sea.

The first two, the newspaper is published twice a week. Printing was done manually, it took a lot of time and labor. For rent printing had to make decent money and public subsidies could not achieve. At first it was difficult to teach Pavlovsky citizens to place commercial advertisements in the newspaper. As the sole employee of his newspaper, Pavlovsky, sometimes overheard to sell someone the property free printed hear the information. After several successful cases, look for buyers, citizens gradually began to bring to the editor different ads.
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Over time, there were many Pavlovsky, formed by like-minded people who care. They are also published in the pages of “Nicholas messenger” your articles. Soon Nikolaev had no idea the city without their newspaper. “Nikolaev’s Bulletin” started to play a significant role in the life of the city.

Yegor Pavlovsky was engaged not only the publication of the newspaper, he was involved in public affairs, in a device of urban society savings, preparing for children’s reading books. He had a lot of plans, but they it was destined to fail. His life was cut short by a chance event.

In those years, Nicholas among the public was accepted to attend the theater in Odessa. September 17, 1870 Pavlovsky viewing opera, returning late in the evening on the boat “Argonaut”. Passenger ship next morning was to follow in Nikolaev. In low light conditions, Pavlovsky did not notice at sea jetty deep, dark door and fell into it. From there, the body of the Pavlovsk removed without the chance of life.
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The newspaper “Nikolaev Bulletin” continued to appear after the death of its founder. Her published B. Krajewski, who apply for rental of the newspaper and the right to its publication in relatives of Pavlovsk. Now the city authorities began to support the newspaper’s annual subsidy. A year later, A. Yurkovski rent went through, in which the newspaper is closed, and in 1885 already began to appear in the Jurkowski “Leaf board”, later renamed “Southerner.”

The founder of the first newspaper Yegor Nicholas Pawlowski died in the prime of life, full of plans and hopes. Spending his last journey came a lot of Nikolaev. This reason was widespread recognition that Pavlovsky earned during his short but brilliant life.
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Unfortunately, it happened that our city streets often bear the names of people who have never been in Nikolaev, and perhaps – and did not know about its existence. Typically, this ardent revolutionaries and people who have contributed to the strengthening of the Soviet power. At the same time, the Patriots Nikolaev and the people who work for the good and the image of the city until almost no chance of being immortalized in street names. It is a pity, because it would be fostered and encouraged young people to sacrifice its forces on the prosperity of Nikolaev.

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Do you know that…

Do you know that…
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1. Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory is located in the city center at an altitude of 52 meters above sea level. This is the highest point of the city.
2. Century Nikolaev noted in 1890.

3. In 1964, the executive committee of the Nikolaev City Council of People’s Deputies decided to establish a commemorative medal “born in Odessa.”

4. Regularly day city were carried out with 1982.

5. The first ship built at the “Ocean” was dumb barge.

6. Battleship “Potemkin” was built at the Nikolayev plants “Nawal” and “Russud” and being completed in Sevastopol.

7. The first Nikolaev newspaper, which he called “Nikolaev Bulletin”, published in 1865.

8. The first stone pavement laid in Nikolayev in 1818, the year.

9. Admiral Greig Nikolaev was enclosed by a stone wall, a total length of 1,457 yards (just over three kilometers).
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10. The longest avenue in Nikolaev - the Avenue of October. Its length of over 15 kilometers.
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11. The first 45 years of the city of Nikolaev its streets had no names and got them only in 1835.

12. Varvarovs’s bridge first was built in Nikolayev in 1855 during the Crimean War. It was wooden, pontoon and served 109 years.

13. Absolutely all the aircraft carriers of the Soviet Union built in Nikolayev.

14. Ship Nikolaev district established in 1974 after joining Zhovtnevoe city and is the youngest district.

15. Peninsula Alaud in Nikolaev is named in honor of the descendants of the Italian merchant Luigi Aliaudi, whose farm was located on these lands in the nineteenth century.

16. Missile tract in Nikolaev got its name from being here plants producing combat and flares for the army.

17. The movement of the electric tram in Nikolaev began December 21, 1914.

18. The first trolleybus in Nikolaev launched October 29, 1967 through the train station – trolleybus park.

19. Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory was founded in 1821.

20. During the 18 years of Odessa and the Black Sea Fleet led by the famous discoverer of Antarctica – Admiral M.P. Lazarev.
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21. Natural gas held in Nikolaev in 1963.

22. The headquarters of the Black Sea Fleet 100 years was located in Nikolaev.

23. The first theater in Odessa opened 175 years ago on the streets of Moscow.

24. Nikolaev Building Observatory is oriented strictly to the directions of the compass, and the main façade is directed exactly to the north.

25. The famous seascape painter I.K. Aivazovsky twice hosted its exhibitions in Nikolaev.

26. In 1802, was created Mykolaiv region with the center in Mykolaiv, which lasted only one year.

27. Part of the filming children’s film director Georgy Danelia “Hopelessly Lost” on the novel by Mark Twain’s “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” was held in Odessa in 1969 near the river station.
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31. 225 years of Nikolaev number of its inhabitants increased almost 3.5 thousand. Times, that is approximately 2.2 thousand. People annually.

32. Konstantinovsky battery – an artificial island Nikolaev, rolled in like a fortification, which has never sounded any defensive shot.

33. The first acquaintance with the cinema Nikolaev was held in 1896.

34. At the beginning of the twentieth century on the site of a long-distance bus station was located the town dump.

35. The first coat of Nikolayev was approved Oct. 7, 1803. In the history of the city coat of arms was changed three times.

36. The first builder and citizen Nikolaev M.L. Faleev was in the merchant class, despite the fact that his position gave awards and entitled to the nobility.

37. For the construction of the first ship, the frigate “St. Nicholas” was spent 218 thousand. Rubles in silver.
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41. In 1924, the city of Nikolayev offered renamed Vernoleninsk.

42. Nikolaev never renamed Artillery Street, Sebastopol, Embankment, Engineering and Malaya Morskaya.

43. Most often, renamed the street Navarino. Only five times.

44. The numbers “283″ on the tower tank T-34, standing at the intersection of Lenin Avenue and the streets Komsomolskaya mean the day of liberation of Nikolaev from Nazi invaders – 28 March 1944.

45. April 18, 1902 in Nikolaev was born Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, known as the 7th Lubavitcher Rebbe, one of the most prominent Jewish figures of the XX century.

46. ​​Monument to sailor Shevchenko construction Ignatius College (the former barracks of the sailors), opened in 1874, was the first monument of lower rank in the whole of Russia.

47. Mykolaiv yacht “Icarus” was the first yacht in the Soviet Union, whose team made the circumnavigation, having rounded Cape Horn.

48. Before the conquest of the Turkish fortress Haji-Bey, the founder of Odessa Joseph de Ribas living in Nikolaev. His house was located at the intersection of St. Nicholas and Navarino.

49. The first house on the “Dry Fountain” was laid July 3, 1926, beginning the base of the new district of the city.

50. In a few minutes the old railway station turned into Odessa Nikolayev Station. It happened in the TV series “Liquidation”, in frames of farewell Leonid Utesov with Odessa.

51. The configuration of the above-ground part of the building has views of Mykolayiv Observatory pyramid.

52. All the sailing ships of the Black Sea fleet, defeated the Turkish fleet in the Battle of Sinop in 1853, it was built in Nikolayev.
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38. The first public school was opened in Nikolaev, January 8, 1863.
Persha public schools has been viewed vіdkrita in Mikolaєvі 8 sіchnya 1863 roku.

39. The first call in Nikolayev rang January 1, 1890.
Purshia phone dzvіnok in Mikolaєvі prodzvenіv 1 sіchnya 1890 roku.

40. In the early days of its formation, the plant “Zorya” (Concern “Zorya-Mashproekt”) issued armored bed nets.
On Becoming zori Svoge factory “Zorya” (Concern “Zorya-Mashproekt”) vipuskav pantsirnі sіtki for lіzhok.

28. Zero the stocks in the Black Sea Shipyard was the largest in Europe, and above it are two cranes of 900 tons each.

29. The first was built in Nikolayev ship, the frigate “Saint Nicholas”, served only 11 years, after which it was sold in Naples for 11.5 thousand. Ducats.

30. The first official head of Nikolayev in 1795 became mayor – a collegiate assessor Voronkovsky and first commandant of the city – Colonel Vyazemskij.

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Olvia. All stolen to us

“Parutins peasants destroyed or damaged many ancient tombs and other monuments of antiquity. Obtained their monuments are often extremely important, through the buyers coming into the private museums, it went in foreign museums. Only rarely managed to acquire ancient Olbia in public collections. “

1. General view of the ruins of the city general view of the ruins

More than a hundred years have passed since it was published on the front page of the thirteenth in a row release of the Imperial Archaeological Commission. And time seems to have stood still. June 18, 2015: “SBU prevented an attempt to smuggle a collection of ancient coins of Olbia.” 2013: “The smuggler from Parutino admitted that the coins dug up on their own plot during agricultural work and planned to sell them.” 2012: “More than a hundred units of cultural values ​​of the ancient city-state of Olbia, whose age is about two thousand years, were seized in the course of customs clearance. ”

2. Remains of the mosaic floor the remains of the floor pavement dwellings

Public interest in the monuments of the ancient period, the first time clearly showed in the late eighteenth century. At the same time and started gathering the first archeological material in private collections. This resulted, inter alia, to the discovery of Olbia and its necropolis as a distinct historical territory. It was during these years formed the Russian imperial aggressive foreign policy of the accession of new lands, opening the way to the Black Sea. At the same time, and there was a “map the exact position of the mouths of rivers Dnieper and the Bug,” which in this case is particularly interesting to us that her first applied “Tract hundred graves,” localized in the area Voloska braids.

3. Facade of the ancient house Front of house

Until that time the ruins of the ancient city of Olbia controlled by the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean khan. Traveling in 1576 these lands, Ambassador of the Polish king Martin Bronevsky enthusiastically described the mounds Olbia necropolis, taking them by mistake for Scythian tomb. Description of the majestic panorama of the estuary revealed to him, he devoted more than a paragraph in his book «Tartarie description» (1595)

4. Yard House Olbia Yard House

After two hundred years of the first designer and architect of the city of Nikolaev, engineering armies Potemkin and Suvorov Franz Pavlovich De Volan in the historic “a report on the geographical and topographical situation of the provinces or Edizan Oz, otherwise known as the steppe Ochakovo” has given his description of the settlement and the tract Hundred graves. “The number of hills surrounding a distance of 4-5 versts these ruins is, apparently, from two to three hundred, mostly from the tombs of different depths, heights and shapes.” But the talented architect has thought to correlate with time, these mounds of the ancient Greek city. At the same time, Colonel Kherson Grenadier Regiment Kazimirovich Andrew Meyer described the necropolis of Olbia, saying: “The so-called hundred graves are now hills covering the ruins of ancient of any buildings. The situation now graves makes me suspect that their place was either the city or the leaders of the tomb which any of the dwelt in the land of the Scythians.”
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And all this time continued barbaric looting and graves and the remains of city residents nearby settlements. The main and most became easy prey for the building material of interest to anyone who wanted to build a stone house. Parutino village, part of which is located directly on the territory of Olbia necropolis was the main consumer and supplier of antique stone, often goes to wealthy clients in Ochakov, Nikolayev and Kherson. In his book, “The Life and Death of civilizations” director Art Museum named after Sergei V.Vereshchagin Roslyakov tells how famous archaeologist Boris Farmakovsky lamented to those who engaged in the export of building stone. Because of the constant looting was worried authentic mound confused historical layers.

Parutino village located south of Parutino beams, was founded in the eighteenth century Nekrasovsky Old Believers, who came to this region from the lower reaches of the Danube. After the annexation of these lands to the Russian Empire, the sectarians have gone to Asia Minor and the Aegean Sea. The village is at the same time it was renamed in honor of Ilinskoe new owner, Count Ilya Bezborod’ko. It is the “living soul” of the landowner, including many convicts were imported, put on the industrial process stream barbaric looting Olbian graves in search of gold and ancient relics. In 1820, the year I.Muravjev Apostle exclaimed on this occasion: “Everything pitted here! All fossil! Alas! No ashes olviopolitov poor … ”

In the early 90-ies of the XVIII century the estate manager found the treasure Olbian coins and handed over to its owner. Subsequently, the subjects of the ancient necropolis went to Nikolaev, as part of the officers who served at that time in our city, had a classical education and belonged to the enlightened lovers of antiquity. Some people even knew the true historical value of these items for posterity and tried to save them, and even to show. These people include, for example, Admiral I.Traverse. In the Black Sea Hydrographic Depot cards, created in 1803 came an impromptu cabinet of curiosities, who was involved, including the collection and study of antiquities, in large numbers coming from the area of ​​the village Parutino. Depot, in fact, was the first museum of artifacts Nikolaev Olbia period.

In 1847, on the coast of the Black Sea began its search work Petersburg Archaeological and Numismatic Society, one of the founders of which was A.Uvarov. All costs of excavations in Olbia, he took upon himself. Uvarov, double-digging in the ancient necropolis: in 1848 and 1853 respectively. In the first visit, he dug nine mounds, in the second six. But nothing particularly interesting is not found, for all the mounds appeared ransacked. As stated in a classic comedy of the Soviet era, “everything stolen before us.”

Twenty years later (we are talking about 1873), the Imperial Archaeological Commission decided to resume excavations in Olbia, outsource it E.Zabelinu and Baron V.Tizengauzenu. Nothing particularly interesting, they also did not find and report “on reduction of the excavations in Olbia” had tragic consequences for the study of the ancient city as the research work on the site and the necropolis were discontinued. Again came a golden time for “black archeologists” and amateur collectors.

In “Tract hundred tombs or necropolis Pontic Olbia” (author V.Papanova) described the case as the Chisinau landowner and collector of ancient artifacts I.Suruchan “legal” ten mounds excavated and opened the crypts beneath nine (1886). The new owner of the land, Countess Musin-Pushkin, the year twice forbade the excavations of the necropolis. Working members of the Imperial Archaeological Society directly touches its interests. Digging all those who could. In 1891, whether the owners of land, whether vagrants treasure hunters – history has not kept accurate information – opened a stone crypt, filled with utensils, a rich inventory and gold products. These items are “disappeared”, but preserved description by von Stern in 1892.

In 1896, first came to dig Olbia Boris Farmakovsky. His arrival marked the beginning of a new stage in the research settlement and a necropolis. The first expedition consisted of ten soldiers Ochakovo reserve battalion. Professional scientific approach Farmakovsky has made adequate effect. In 1902, the Archaeological Commission was able to convince the owners of land the family of Count A.Musin-Pushkin “to conclude a special agreement about the excavation.” Scientists welcomed enlightened attention to the needs of domestic science graph, which provided an opportunity to “make scientific excavations in Olbia and that certainly has rendered valuable service to science”. In fact, a cunning Count not allowed to work across a wide area, but only in the space of sixty acres.

After a while Farmakovsky hires guards and local officials to oversee security, combating barbaric excavations and findings of buying from local residents. Unearths mounds systematized findings specified card disappeared city-state. But World War I began in 1914 has made adjustments to the work of the archaeological expedition. There has been a sharp reduction Farmakovsky estimates and, consequently, the amount of work. Because of labor shortages in 1915 unearthed a necropolis and then only on a small scale. During these years, frequent re-looting of tombs and ruins. For the first time caretaker Olbia (Fedor and Vavila Rosintsy) received firearms.

In spring 1917 Farmakovsky preparing another expedition, but the events of the revolutionary year to postpone the start of seasonal work. The main part of the expedition did not come in the same year at all. Civil war broke contact with her beloved Farmakovsky ancient city. The scientific work carried out rarely. Predatory archeology flourished. “Again, Olbia was cast adrift” (S.Semjenov-Zuser, 1921) Parutin’s volrevkom repress the popular site, handing out plots of land outside the boundaries of the village near the crypts and graves. Boris Farmakovsky returned to Olbia only in 1924 and led the excavation until 1926 inclusive. This was the last stage of the study of the necropolis Farmakovskii.

During the Soviet period the interest in scientific work in the territory of Olbia archaeological site was great, but all the time in parallel with scientists in the ancient city hosted and “black archeologists”, and occasional tourists. The author of the text himself remembers those days (early 90s), when any person could freely enter the territory of today’s nature reserve by car or stay at the picnic, going down to the water. By daring tourists at best could come researchers reserve and try to expel intruders from the territory of the excavation. The only weapon that was in those years, the scientists – is a strong word. There were frequent situations when people become accidental witnesses of the high bank collapses, which opened warehouses or amphorae remains of dwellings. Tourists do greedy attempt to wrest the land from wet clay vessels, barbarously destroying them.

Pass the centuries and millennia. But popular with locals, vagrants treasure hunters and collectors insatiable not changed one iota. On the illegal market artifacts revolves more items than is in all the vaults of Russian museums. The territory of the ancient city-state is much bigger than a piece of land allocated today under the historical reserve. Besides Olbia in our area, there are only about a hundred of archaeological monuments of the ancient period. And that’s just those who are known to scientists. Life experience and continuously expanding market illegally harvested artifacts history suggest that illegal diggers often have more information, financial and technical capabilities than archaeologists diplomas.

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