A few years ago I came to book a wonderful Ukrainian historian Dmitri Ivanovich Yavornytsky (Evarnytskoho) “the latest in the remains of ancient legends and people.” Eight years of his life he devoted to research Cossack settlements in the Dnipro Basin and Southern Bug, which are described in the said book.
In early May 2014, we – Alex Kravchenko and Nikolay Ponomarenko – decided to go all the way Yavornytsky and started a village Lupareve and estuaries. We were interested in stone crosses, churches and other evidence Cossack past. Of course, since the trips to these places Yavornytsky been more than one hundred and twenty years, many lost, but some remain.
LUPAREVE. ORIGINS Cossacks
One of the places described – is outskirts of the village Lupareve (October Mykolaiv Oblast), located in Lupareviy beam.
Lupareve (Lupareva beam) as Oleksandrivka (now – Kherson region) was part Kyslyakovskoy townships and owned by the same owners as the Oleksandrivka – Miloradovich landlords. But the reality can be proud of the village, is the fact that these places, according to D.I. Yavornytsky … is the birthplace of Ukrainian Cossacks. This is, however, around the corner from Semenov (Stanislav cape at the confluence of the Dnieper and Bug estuaries), but it is just a few kilometers from Luparevoy beams.
Here he writes about it in his book: “The place Semenov great horn that it many chroniclers <...> find the beginning of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks. There was a Polish soldier Semen; 948 year, “whipping wild goats” boars and different game, he left the place of their homeland, came to the mouth of the River Bug, chosen here is the best place braid or horn, and began to earn one on it. So he lived here a year and returned home. But, having been on the Bug again, he wanted to go on it and the second time, now Simon went not one, but with gang more than a hundred people industrialists, who chose him as their leader. This time the band spent many years on the Bug, a sewed coats and pants with skins of wild goats and so famous then that a force, known as the goatherd or Cossacks. “
Inspired by future discoveries, we got off the bus at a brand new church and went in search of rarities. In several dozen meters were two women and something vividly discussed, but to learn that we need excitedly began to tell how to get to the local cemetery, and there are crosses have survived. I want to send a compliment locals. I visited many cemeteries – large and small, well-kept and running, but this tidy, as here, have not seen. And not only that graves are straight rows and between them can pass freely. Many of them are decorated with colored sand, some of the same sand set Christian symbols and inscriptions.
The first cross we found where we were told, and he, no doubt, was a Cossack! That’s what it was written: “Here was buried servant of Zolotoniyskiy County Poltava province Melnikov Cossack village treasury James stooped. He lived on earth 86 years. 1838 “. How Cossack Poltava province was in Luparevoy beam – a mystery that we hardly ever uncover.
In addition, the inscriptions on other crosses, it was found the names of two villagers buried in the cemetery Luparevskom – some of Nicholas and Michael Baran.
At the cemetery survived several crosses of different shapes, but the inscriptions on them, unfortunately, can not be read. Time, wind and rain nearly wiped them from the face of crosses.
What is interesting in Luparevo? “The history of the towns and villages of the Ukrainian SSR. Mykolaiv region“ tells Scythian burial mounds and Bronze period. When I was in school (a hundred years ago), our history teacher who has worked before in Luparevomu, talked about the interesting discoveries made in the village. I remember he said that local school pupils under his direction even conducted some excavations, but this is outside of my memories. But from others I have heard many stories about finding old things in the construction of houses and digging wells.
I wonder what is the fate of these findings?
Descending from a high cliff to the shore of the estuary, immediately got into the thick of some midges size of a dragonfly. All this we attacked and cracked wings until we did not come to open windswept terrain: here the attackers retreated, and allowed to breathe freely.
Modern estuary emerged after World War II by combining villages Zaitsev, Kyslyakovka and Holy Trinity. They say also about Yuhymivku, as the fourth village, but Yavornytsky on this subject says: “Above Semenov corner of the village are Lupareva beam, Zaitseva, or Yuhymivka and Kyslyakovka village.” Most village – Kyslyakovka, it also was the center of the parish of the same name, brings together twenty-eight villages, hamlets and other settlements, through subordinate police officers Theophanic. It was in the village and the church, see below.
Belonged Kyslyakovka Rogaleva landowner. The funds of land banks Odessa archives mentioned a case of secured land owners of Kherson county, court counselor wife Elizabeth Victorovna Rogaleva in the city. Balatskomu (07.04.1865-31.10.1898). A similar case is about and her husband – court counselor Sergei Ivanovich Rogaleva.
Balatske – until 1920 INGULY town on a forty-four kilometers from Nikolaev, now Bashtansky area. After the unification of Hrystoforovkoyu part of it. In Brockhaus and Efron on Balatske given the following information: “The Orthodox Church, the Jewish house of worship, school, rural hospital. 50 markets, 10 commercial and industrial establishments.”
The village Zaitsev or Yuhymivka restored after mental depression Russian writer Vsevolod Mikhailovich Garshin. He stayed at the house of his uncle on the mother, Vladimir S. Akimov (1837-1897) – a provincial magistrate, who left the memories of this period of life Garshina. Sam V.S. Akimov, died and was buried in Mykolaiv, necropolis and his wife, the tomb is preserved.
In the estuary to the 100th anniversary of the birth of the writer on the building of the local village council opened a memorial plaque.
Here, in Yuhymivtsi, VM Garshin wrote several stories about our region in particular tale “That did not happen.” That which characterize the surrounding villages gives one of the characters in this tale:
“- True – confirmed thoughtful bay. – But all you really do not see a hundredth part of what he had seen in my lifetime I have. Too bad you can not understand what a verst … a mile away is the village Luparevka: there every day I ride on the barrel with water. But there I never fed.
On the other hand Efymovka, Kyslyakovka; in her church with bells. And then the Holy Trinity, and Epiphany. In Theophanic always give me hay, hay but there bad. But in Nikolaev - is a town twenty-eight miles away – so there better hay and oats give, but I do not like to go there, go there for us and ordered Mr. coachman drive and driver hurt us stobaye whip … And then there is Oleksandrivka Belozerka, Kherson City too … And just where you figure it all out! .. Here is what is the world; not all, say, yes still a significant part.”
The church, which refers bay, not preserved. The fact that it was the told D.Y.Yavornytskyy: “From the description of the church can be seen that the church, in the name of the Saviour, built in the second half of the last century (1772) Zaporizhzhya Cossacks. Its walls made of rough stone and reach two yards thick. The bell tower, stone and built separately from the church and not the west side, as they build and the south-east; it looks like a square, slightly elongated, two floors of the tower, with loopholes, two wide doors <...> with two cameras inside. Belfry placed so that it is one door area along the river Bug, and the other – along the Dnieper estuary. It is obvious that it has been adapted for military purposes architect. “
Unfortunately, the church did not survive the battle with time and human ignorance … Now in the place where once was located, a cross, a key to the restoration of the temple in the future, and under it – the image of the church.
In estuaries four cemeteries, including the one that is Luparevoho. The oldest is called: Zaitseve village cemetery, which is written in the table on the fence of the cemetery. Ancient graves here a lot. Among those whose names are not read on the cross – Krivickij Moses (1887), Nikita Gulyaev, David Prosevych.
Here buried former MAP director Vitaly Meshin with his wife, said that next to his house. Near the cemetery is really durable mansion …
It should be said that the new burial graves are located directly above the end of XVIII – early XIX century. Some old graves that are closer to the river, is now open. With the collapse of time sepulcher boards sticking straight off a cliff, visible human remains. This is gradually each year in the Bug estuary. Several years ago, the press has raised the issue that the bank on which the cemetery, flaking, and the remains of those buried there people get water in the estuary. Apparently, since nothing has changed: the coast, on the order of new graves …
In the Russian cemetery spit entirely new, but in the former pioneer camp on the concrete fence interesting remark that in the period from 1750 till 1810 and is buried years suffering from smallpox and plague, because it prohibited the burial. But …
The mill continues to grind time of fate and death continually his merciless harvest.
As a kind of symbol of Lyman really is an old windmill, but with four wings have only two. According to the stories of old-timers, it functioned until the late 60s of the twentieth century. It should thank local residents have kept this ancient monument, not dismantled, let the wood.
Overall, estuary, which lie on the left bank of the Bug estuary (is such a tautology), confirmed their Cossack roots. So, most likely the oldest Yavornytsky was right to mention the origins of the Cossacks in our land …
At the end of the eighteenth century, the founder. Nikolaev Prince G.A. Potemkin-Tauride in one of his letters pointed ML Faleev “Sloboda Pryvolnuyu lying on INGULY where residents recently Cossacks did, on the ability to pay Admiralty villagers. Also Matveevka lying Bug near the Nikolaev, attributed to the city, and Cossacks in Cossack settlements on the Rights Bug transfer.”
Year of establishment Matveevka considered to be the 1780 th. The village is set on the map Ilsenyeva John, and there is believed to be on the spot of winter homes. In this title, the village was called long Red Valley (Red Valley) or Red. Many old people still call residents Matveevka “chervonyanamy” and clearly understand talking about.
In his book Yavornytsky no mention of visiting Matveevka but classify it as a Cossack settlement, there is every reason for “rage. arr. c. №1 »means nothing else than” Cossack village quit-rent.” Since the village is mentioned in the “List of Kherson province populated areas”, published Regional Committee m. Kherson in 1896 it should understand this: free Cossacks, depriving prescribed by state benefits, forced to pay dues as ordinary peasants.
Stone crosses various forms (not just “Cossack”) stand and lie in the cemetery near the modern tombstones often confronted with them. They are more than a dozen inscriptions on some easily readable, many have nothing left.
For example, it was found the names of some people who once lived here, John, Mary, died in 1867, Michael Z. Kolesnikov, Nicodemus, Tatiana, James Somar.
A lot of crosses whitewashed and painted in different colors. What does this mean? And, in fact, nothing, except that care for them and try to keep as long as possible, although they say that lime paint and destroy the stone, which is carved crosses.
It is a remarkable place Matveevka – it is certainly the church of Saints Peter and Paul, which this year celebrates its centennial. The impression it makes is so strong that next to it and do not want to talk, you just silently contemplate this architectural excellence. Many pines on the edge of abandoned quarry in Mykolayiv these churches and no …
There is Matviyivtsi and his “Pentagon” – high-rise buildings in the area of the former silica plant. Someone once joked – to name buildings and “stuck”, although, of course, nothing like the main headquarters of the US Armed Forces to do with it or not.
For Matveevka is familiar, perhaps every Nikolaev wonderful pine forest, but it looks like after wind-fallen trees – amazingly beautiful tree fallen across the sand because of uncontrolled garbage.
It is said that in the same forest are the graves of soldiers during the Civil War, and perhaps later – told different people in different ways. Soldiers engaged or surplus or bereaved bread from local wealthy peasants, for which he paid with their lives.
The most famous is always Matveevka “kulak” sentiments and prosperity peasants. Unfortunately, we tomb has never been found, but remember that at the site of the old cemetery is the grave of Nicholas died in 1919 in Matviyivtsi soldiers.
It is written:
“Here lie the defenders of Soviet power, died at the hands of the kulak gang in the village. Matveevka. “
BALOVNE: History in the style of “modern”
Balovne to the village can be reached by bus and can be reached on foot through the forest Matveevka we gladly did. When will fall into Matveevskoe forest? In remembrance school race orienteering and forest, all white from settled upon him silica dust from the local factory. Today the forest completely different, and walk on it in the morning, after a night of breathing abandoned freshness – no incomparable pleasure.
About the time of the village. Balovne still arguing. The official date of its origin is considered in 1647. In any case, the fact that the village existed before the foundation of Nikolaev, no doubt. On the map are cited John Ilsenyeva 1779 it’s marked Balovnya. Another called it Yatska, Yatskovka, and all these names comes from the Cossack Jacek Balovni that had there ever a winterer. At the local cemetery we found a wonderful Cossack grave, and thought: is it the same Yatsko it buried?
It turned out that he did not … but man lying in the grave, or rather in the crypt, was not a simple Cossack, a representative of the captains, maybe some Cossack chieftain.
To complete the picture on the tombstone, one of us had to climb a tree that has grown over the tomb. For a long time we were surprised at the lack of the inscription on the plate, which explains who is here until accidentally discovered it on the end plate. The inscription reads seems clear, but it turns out “abracadabra”. Perhaps abbreviated words, as was customary in Old Slavonic grammar. We hope that the experts will be able to read the inscription.
Along with this stove on the ground is another, but much smaller. Overgrown irises artifact is a rare image of the cross in our region as an anchor. Perhaps this is the first time ever we travel (except Kamenka village cemetery Ochakiv district). In the upper left corner of the plate shows a Maltese cross in the right – or hexagonal shape of a flower, the stars. The inscription on the plate were found. Basically, tombstone signed not always and not everywhere, why – it’s hard to say. We believe that the people who lived in those days, and so knew who and where he is buried.
Generally trip was rich in surprises. First discovered cross dating from 1791 of year. When he is Elijah Martynovych. Secondly, for the first time on the cross saw the name of the master. Cut out the cross Yarmola some Petrovich (name, unfortunately, could not read).
But on another cross dated to. XVIII century. Name carver read quite clearly – Nikita Hrestoriz. I it is nothing to say, but that Alex said he heard about hrestoriza Nikita, however, documentary evidence of its existence is not seen. It was rumored that the cross with his signature found in 1867 in the village. Kyslyakovka (current p. Lima). The story was confirmed, but elsewhere.
In the Cossack, with the cemetery. Balovne preserved a large number of stone crosses of different shapes and sizes. The inscriptions on many of them survived. Locals with respect for the past and the best of support rather good condition old graves.
Church Balovne is near the cemetery. But this new church, and the old is just down the street. This is how it looks.
Researcher churches Mykolayiv Dmitry Zakovorotnyy wrote about it: “The Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin. First mentioned map Ilsenyeva in 1779. In 1867, the congregation built a stone church with a seat.”
In the early 20th century the church was the parish school. This house of worship arose after the church was destroyed by the Soviets. Service pravylas here for as long as not built a new ultra-modern church. Now building of the house of worship is closed and not maintained.
The new church impresses with its modern decoration, windows, marble tiles, railings, stainless steel … We built it with enough people, and it does not look old-fashioned village, despite many of the old buildings.
Interestingly, on the facades of many buildings dates of their construction. Some are a hundred years, but they look like new. Even that rushed into the eyes of that in Balovnomu like to decorate their estates various inscriptions and drawings.
In one of the houses, for example, in addition to the columns cups gate of gate sculpture is a dog that probably protect the house from intruders.
School in Balovne also ultra finishes at once and think that this school. Next to the school – a memorial to soldiers who died during the liberation of the village and countrymen, who did not return from the war. With the naked eye can see that not so long ago and the memorial was reconstructed.
But the monument Sergei Kirov overgrown weeds in complete oblivion … The presence of this monument is simple: in Soviet times, the village contained a central manor farm them. Kirov.
An interesting attraction is the tomb of the village dogs. Perhaps it was for people over pet – a family member, a true friend …
Actually, I want to say that, despite the abundance and even some luxury, people here are friendly and benevolent. They gladly answered our questions and the first welcomed.
The atmosphere of the village adjusts to the kindness and hospitality: here originate scenic spots Pribuzhzhya – Bug smooth. River, which carries the waters to the Black Sea, covered with thickets of water lilies and water lilies.
Our Road Trip Dmitry Yavornytsky completed. We visited almost all the villages situated on the Southern Bug in October, Novoodesskom, Ascension and Domanivsky areas. Artifacts Cossack times that we were looking for, preserved in the form of stone crosses names churches, for example, in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary patroness of the Cossacks, or in the names of villages, as in the case of Balovnym. All this suggests that the first settlers here were Cossacks and stork Cossacks, and then everyone else.
And our memory of it will go into the sand as the water does not go into old wells around the village Balovne …