Chronicler submarine (Drzewiecki Stepan Karlovic)
Russian nobleman of Polish origin, named in Russia Stepan Karlovich Drzewiecki was actually Stephen Kazimirovich.
He became famous in the civilized world for its multilateral scientific interest and extensive design and inventive activities. His name is inscribed in the annals of submarine as the creator of the first combat submarine, along with the names of John. Holland, I.Peralya, S.Leka and M.Lobefa …
S.K.Dzhevetsky was a scientist, designer and inventor in the field of shipbuilding, aviation and marine engineering, one of the first designers submarines.
He was the first in Ukraine (!) Developed the project and prostroen in Odessa submarine.
Stefan Drzewiecki was born in 1843 in Volyn province in a very rich and illustrious noble family. Childhood and youth spent in Paris, where he graduated from the Central Engineering School. His parents owned vast estates with forests in Volyn and large plot of land with an orchard and a luxury cottage on Little Fountain (Odessa), on the beach. They had several houses and apartments in Warsaw in St. Petersburg and Paris, where Drzewiecki in the ground and lived.
Be friends with Eiffel, Krylov COULD NOT EVERYONE!
The school friend Stephen was Gustave Eiffel, famous afterwards his famous tower in Paris, participation in the construction of the Panama Canal and scientific work in the field of experimental aerodynamics. Another friend Drzewiecki later became our famous shipbuilder, Academician Krylov, who knew Stefan Drzewiecki for 60 years (until his death). Krylov left fascinating memories of Drzewiecki, in which, in particular, said that later became famous Eiffel built a remarkable aerodynamic laboratory close to Paris villa Drzewiecki, received “for nothing” other consultant in his face.
According to his friends, a graduate of the Central School of Engineering Stefan Drzewiecki was “witty, elegant, well-educated, almost a Frenchman entree into high society and the environment of the governor of Warsaw Grand Duke Constantine.” However, outside this circle, he devoted his leisure to science and invention.
Stephen Young, having a decent prosperity and possessing creativity, has developed several original instruments necessary mechanics and Mariners. He introduced them to the World Exhibition in Vienna in 1873, where they saw the governor and the Kingdom of Poland Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich. He invited Stephen Karlovic become advisory member of the Naval Technical Committee (ITC).
When Drzewiecki served in MTC, in 1877, the war with Turkey. Energetic and active Stefan immediately enrolled as a volunteer on the Black Sea Fleet on a military ship “Vesta”. July 11 there was a fierce battle “Vesta” with the Turkish battleship. Sailor Drzewiecki for personal bravery was rewarded George Cross, which he proudly wore on festive occasions.
Really Boat UNIVERSITY?
After this fight Stepan Karlovic was demobilized. He went to Odessa and settled at his dacha. Here he developed his first combat submarine project, with which intended to fight the Turkish ships. Drzewiecki built the submarine at the Odessa factory Blanchard Gul at the expense of the merchant Rodokonaki. He was assisted by a mechanic A.E.Garut. But the construction was completed only in 1878, when the war was over. Stefan Karlovic personally experienced its submarine-bike (pedal power to the propeller).
Upon learning of the submarine, the chief commander of the Black Sea Fleet, Vice Admiral N.A.Arkas, arrived in Odessa, where Drzewiecki personally showed him their offspring. During the second test 24 October 1878 Designer after twenty minutes “walk” in search of the barge, which was from him in the 200 meters, was able to secure the mine and blow it up.
Based on this sample of Odessa and recommendations of the commission drafted a fleet Drzewiecki larger submarine (for four people). In 1879, the Marine Technical Committee rejected this project, but Drzewiecki asked the Committee Volunteer Fleet, which gave him 20 thousand. Rubles, donated by well-known banker S.S.Polyakovym. The new submarine, which helped create A.E.Garut, had to have a water jet propulsion (for the first time in the world!) And a periscope. November 8, 1879 the boat into the water, but instead it was the jet on the managed propeller serves as both a vertical wheel. Drzewiecki took his boat to Gatchina on Silver Lake, whose water was absolutely transparent. Here he showed it to Crown Prince Alexander Alexandrovich and Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich.
“It is a tribute NEPTUNE Your Majesty”
Aleksey Krylov in his memoirs, a curious episode of one of the tests of the boat in which Drzewiecki proved himself as a true Parisian “comme il faut”: “Knowing that Alexander III inseparable from the queen Maria Feodorovna, Drzewiecki ordered a bouquet of the most magnificent orchid – the queen favorite colors. Now is test day. The king and queen sat in a boat, on which he reached the middle of the lake, and Drzewiecki, using the transparency of the water, maneuvered around this boat, sometimes passing under it.
Finally the boat approached the pier … Drzewiecki with the skill stick, opened the neck, went to the pier, knelt and gave the queen a magnificent bouquet of orchids, saying (in French): “It’s a tribute to Neptune, your Majesty.”
QUEEN was delighted, KING was very pleased … “.
After high “looks” War Department refused to defend the fortress raids 50 submarines Drzewiecki. It was the first building in the world Large series. By the summer of 1881 the construction completed and in August Drzewiecki conducted a successful test of a boat in the Neva Bay, blowing anchored ship. Then 32 boats were sent by rail to Odessa for the defense of raids Black Sea ports (Ochakov, Odessa, Sevastopol, etc.).
During this period, Drzewiecki, received for their boats 100 thousand rubles reward, went to Italy, where he “began to buy up the royal doors and different naprestoliya, ie facial boards throne in the ancient church, all sorts of old utensils and gadgets, which he so tastefully decorated his apartment that KEMakovsky repeatedly surprised his art “(this is – in St. Petersburg, was a friend of the artist Makovsky Drzewiecki). Then Stefan Kazimirovich visited for Paris, where he ordered the factory Pia different mechanisms for its submarine. Here he met with the drawings and the device of their boats Maurice Gube. Later, his brother Claude Bay opened his own design office, which was designed by a similar submarine, using ideas Drzewiecki (Maurice Gube secretly copied the drawings Drzewiecki and gave Claude). That’s why the boat is so similar to Gube brainchild of Stephen Karlovic.
From 1877 to 1909. Ie 31 years S.K.Dzhevetsky designed 11 submarines, some of which were built. Noteworthy is his project “submarine and surface destroyer”, filed in 1896, the competition of the French Marine Office. He won first prize, ahead of “dive boat” M.Lobefa, but the French government still build a submarine Max Lobefa – the first double-hulled ship. For the development of two of its projects Drzewiecki invited to Paris, where it was his design office, Krylov by providing a rich house in his special room.
In 1903-1909 gg. in St. Petersburg was built and tested an original submarine with a “single engine” for surface and underwater passages – a gasoline engine. The boat was built with funds collected by postal workers from what it called the “Postal”. In the Commission, to experience this boat, the main role was played by Krylov. Despite the friendship, Alexei objectively evaluate the quality of this unique ship and “rejected” him because of the number of uncorrectable flaws, one of which was a bubble trail, finds a ship under water.
In the summer of 1886 Drzewiecki traveled to Turkestan (Central Asia), and the next year – in Egypt, where he rose through the Nile to Aswan. From Egypt, he brought a few local “antiquities”.
In the early 90s Drzewiecki sold his St. Petersburg apartment and auction – all your purchased in Italy “architectural details” to gain for all decent amount. With this money in a suburb of Paris, he bought a hotel with running a garden and a large vacant lot on which to build his own design beautiful villa. Here he began inventions and scientific work.
Stefan Karlovic, received a solid education in mechanical engineering and being creatively gifted man, invented many mechanisms, devices and instruments. Original and profitable proved he invented a folding board torpedo tube. Drzewiecki sold his patent to the French and Russian maritime authorities. In 1892 this unit was adopted in the French, and in 1903 in the Russian fleet. These torpedo tubes were used on French submarines until the beginning of World War II. Were also used in Italy.
FROM Leonardo da Vinci to Drzewiecki
Back in the late XIX century. Stefan Kazimirovich fascinated by aviation. He first published several papers on the theory of the flight of birds and airplanes, setting the conditions under which the machine can take off and to fly (1885-1891 gg.). Drzewiecki later developed the first theory of propeller (propeller), which has not lost its scientific value and now. He reviewed some parts of the screw as the wings of the aircraft; This method was subsequently used to develop Zhukovsky his theory. S.K.Dzhevetsky founded the factory for the production of aircraft propellers, counting himself and designing them. For services in the field of aviation Stephen Karlovic was elected a member of the Paris Ballooning Society (1882) and chairman VII (balloon) of the Imperial Russian Technical Society. Drzewiecki is considered to be the founder of the theory of aviation. Academician Krylov called him “grandfather of Russian aviation”.
Being already at an advanced age, S.K.Dzhevetsky carried away by the kinetic theory of gases, gave a presentation at the Paris Academy of Sciences and publishing articles in its “news”.
Drzewiecki died in April 1938, a few days before the Paris Academy of Sciences was presented his latest research work. He was 95 years old.
Two years ago, residents of Odessa suddenly remembered about his “fellow countryman” S.K.Dzhevetskom, “came to life” and put a monument to him – as a designer and builder of the first submarine in the lands of Ukraine.
Do you remember Nikolaev his hero?
And the old-timers remember Nikolaev, it is possible that before the war in the wasteland of the plant. 61 Communards strewn several buildings from those 32 submarines, which once guarded the raid coastal cities. Then have done offshore buoys catamaran type with which furnished the fairways.