City of St. Nicholas
The territory of modern Nikolaev city situated on the banks of the Bug estuary at the confluence of the river Inhul. The uniqueness of its geographical location, where the parched steppe meets the blue waves of the Black Sea, pungent smells of thyme and sage mixed with salty fish sea wind, there was a people in ancient times. The earliest archaeological site, which is found in the city, dates back to the Neolithic era (V – IV century BC). Nikolaev land remembers the Scythians, Greeks, Slavic tribes, Nogai hordes of free Zaporozhye Cossacks …
But intensive settlement Nikolaev peninsula began in the last quarter of the XVIII century after the liberation of the Northern Black Sea from the Turkish conquerors and exit the Russian state to the Black Sea. Russia needed its own fleet. And by order of Prince GA Potemkin estuary Inhul under the direct supervision of Colonel M.L.Faleeva in 1788 was also a new shipyard. Yards around town began to grow. It got its name after a year, after the victorious assault Ochakova Russian troops under the command of Alexander Suvorov. Ochakov was taken in December 1788, the day of St. Nicholas, the patron of sailors. In his honor and named the new town. The name of St. Nikolaev, one of the most venerated saints in the Ukraine and Russia, tied and the first church built in the city in 1790, and the first ship. 46-gun frigate “St. Nicholas” was launched in August of the same year, and in July 1791 near Cape Kaliakra he received his first baptism of fire. Since the construction of “Saint Nicholas” on the shipyards of the city, and their three today, built more than two thousand ships, including frigates, battleships, destroyers, submarines, etc. Nikolaev - one of two cities in the world where ships were built heavy aircraft.
Shipbuilding and fleet was completely subordinated to the city life. Nearly a hundred years here stationed headquarters of the Black Sea Fleet. During the Crimean War (1853 – 1856 gg.), He became the main rear base of the Black Sea Fleet. Most businesses that have been created in the city belonged to the military-industrial complex, and therefore Nikolaev many decades was closed to foreigners. Even the first educational institution in the city – the Black Sea Navigation School, founded in 1798 – has also been associated with the Navy. Such specificity left a mark on fate, character and even the appearance of Nikolaev. Created in the late XVIII century. plan for the city was rapidly fixed on the ground already in the first decade of its existence, and as a whole, without changes to these days, presenting him a unique town monuments of the Classical period. Not many cities can be proud of.
Despite everything, the city grew and developed, lived his life. Opening in 1862 in the city’s commercial port triggered the transformation to a big commercial port. This fact found its reflection in the arms of the city, which was approved in 1883 and restored in 1997. So, in the “Notes on the emblem military port of Nikolayev” executing Managing stamp department Department of Heraldry Senate stated: “Since Mykolaiv city has one of the major ports of South Russia, leaving the miter and staff, I believe represent the emblem of the city, moreover the ship. ” Already in the late XIX century. Nikolaev port ranked third after St. Petersburg and Odessa on the volume of trade with foreign countries, and grain exports, which suppliers were prairie province – first in the country. Nikolaev himself becomes large industrial center in the south of Ukraine.
Tumultuous events of the twentieth century has not been spared Nikolaev. In October 1917 it was called “red Peter Ukraine.” In 1918 the city was first experienced foreign occupation. In 1920, there was definitively established Soviet power. During World War II Nikolaev almost three years was occupied by the Nazis. But no ship, thanks to the actions of the underground, sabotage and intelligence groups have not gone over this time with Nicholas stocks. And with the liberation of Nikolaev in March 1944 made the immortal feat of 68 marines led by K. Olshansky. This was the only case in the history of the Great Patriotic War, when all participants one combat mission were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, the majority – posthumously.
Connected with Nikolaev names of many prominent people that was reflected in the monuments of the city, the names of its streets, squares and gardens. Served here and worked Admirals AS Greig and M.P.Lazarev, the discoverer and founder of Antarctica F.F.Bellinsgauzen tactics armored fleet admiral GI Butakov heroes defense of Sevastopol during the Crimean War and admirals P.S.Nahimov V.A.Kornilov, the drafters of the “Atlas of the Black Sea” brothers M. and HE Manganari and author of four-volume edition of “The Legend of the Russian land” Maj. Gen. AD Nechvolodov, corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, the first director of the first in the southern Ukraine Nikolaev Observatory K.H.Knorre and created the world’s first marine gas turbine unit S.. It Nikolaev VIDal while on military service, started to create “Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language.” Here, in Nikolayev, finished his major treatise founder of Russian epidemiology member 12 Western academies and scientific societies D.S.Samoylovich (Sushchinskii) and Professor M.G.Livanov created in Epiphany (now Ship district) in 1790 first in the country school of practical farming. Nikolaev gave his first experience of political struggle LD Trotsky (Bronstein). In the city there were Admiral FFUshakov, P.I.Sumarokov, Pushkin, Gorky, Mayakovsky, N.A.Rimsky-Korsakov, M. Schepkin performed here, natives Mykolayiv – Ukrainian theater luminaries N.K.Sadovsky, P.K.Saksagansky, M.L.Kropivnitsky. The first book on the history of the Ukrainian people in their native language – “History of Ukraine-Rus” – was also written in Nikolaev. Its author – N.N.Arkas. Hailing from Nikolaev People’s Artist of the USSR God MM, renowned astronomer, academician F.A.Bredihin, Arctic explorer G.L.Brusilov, a renowned scholar in the field of railway transport academician V.N.Obraztsov talented naval commander, oceanographer, Arctic explorer S.O.Makarov and inventor.
City, who devoted his life shipbuilding, can not be romantic. Therefore it is not surprising that the first great voyage of Nikolaev was carried back in 1848. Then the admiral’s yacht “Oreanda” went from around Europe to Kronshtadt and winning the grand prize of sailing races, returned by the same route back. On the other boat “Icarus”, which was designed and built by students and staff at the Nikolayev shipyard Institute (now Mykolaiv State Technical University. Makarov), Nicholas’s team of 7 people for the first time in Ukraine in 1987 undertook a circumnavigation.
Thanks to daily work, talent, intellect and patience is not one generation, Nikolaev city in a short period in the history evolved from a small shipyard in major industrial, business, political and cultural center of the South of Ukraine. Nikolaev open to the world for partnership and cooperation, and believes in his lucky star – a minor planet (8141) Nikolaev = 1982 SO4, which was opened by the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and named in his honor.